Excerpt: With the recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approval and rollout of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, it is important for radiologists to consider recent COVID-19 vaccination history as a possible differential diagnosis for patients with unilateral axillary adenopathy. Hyperplastic axillary nodes can e seen on sonography after any vaccinations but are more common after a vaccine that evokes a strong immune response, such as the COVID-19 vaccine. As the differential of unilateral axillary adenopathy includes breast malignancy, it is crucial to both thoroughly evaluate the breast for primary malignancy and to elicit history of recent vaccination. As COVID-19 vaccines will soon be available to a larger patient population, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features of COVID-19 vaccine induced hyperplastic adenopathy and its inclusion in a differential for unilateral axillary adenopathy. Short-term follow-up for unilateral axillary adenopathy in the setting of recent COVID-19 vaccination is an appropriate recommendation, in lieu of immediately performing potentially unnecessary and costly axillary lymph node biopsies.

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